分类: Oracle

2018-02-24 09:58:44

PDB数据库的创建可以从现存的数据库中复制数据文件,包括种子容器、可插拔数据库、non-CDB数据库,创建时可使用CREATE PLUGGABLERMAN、以及EM

    在12.1版本中在创建PDB时,SOURCE PDB必须处于read only状态,在12.2版本中,因为undo local mode新特性的推出,在创建PDB时,SOURCE PDBread write状态,依然可以创建。
   
另外在12.2版本中Oracle推出了refresh PDB特性,具有对SOURCE PDB进行增量同步的功能。

  • 使用CREATE PLUGGABLE命令可以使用以下资源创建PDB
    1.CDB seed (PDB$SEED)
    2.克隆已经存在的PDB
      Local PDB
      Remote PDB
    3.non-CDB
    数据库
    4.
    拔下的PDB
  • 使用DBCA可以使用以下资源创建PDB
    1.CDB seed (PDB$SEED)
    2.RMAN备份
    3.
    拔下的PDB

示例:(这里只演示使用create pluggable database命令方式创建PDB)

使用CDB seed创建PDB


1.SQL*Plus中输入CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE语句

(这里创建未ypdb1pdb,管理用户为ypdb1)

CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE ypdb1 ADMIN USER ypdb1 IDENTIFIED BY oracle

  STORAGE (MAXSIZE 2G)

  DEFAULT TABLESPACE ypdb1

    DATAFILE '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/ora12c/ypdb1/ypdb01.dbf' SIZE 100M AUTOEXTEND ON

  PATH_PREFIX = '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/ora12c/ypdb1/'

  FILE_NAME_CONVERT = ('/u01/app/oracle/oradata/ora12c/pdbseed', '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/ora12c/ypdb1');

 

ADMIN USER

用于执行管理任务的本地用户

STORAGE (MAXSIZE 2G)

指定了PDB可用的最大空间

DEFAULT TABLESPACE

PDB指定默认的Tablespace

PATH_PREFIX

用来限制directory objects/Oracle XML/Create pfile/Oracle wallets所在的目录

FILE_NAME_CONVERT

设置子容器和数据文件副本的位置

 

2.语句执行完毕之后查看创建完成的PDB

sys. ora12c>show pdbs

 

    CON_ID CON_NAME                       OPEN MODE  RESTRICTED

---------- ------------------------------ ---------- ----------

         2 PDB$SEED                       READ ONLY  NO

         3 YPDB1                          MOUNTED

sys. ora12c>

 

克隆已经存在的PDB

这种方式可以通过使用当前CDB中的其他PDB,以及复制远端CDB中的PDB,还可以复制non-CDB数据库创建成PDB

Clone a Local PDB



Clone本地PDB时需要注意一下几点:

1.使用的用户必须拥有’CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE’的权限(测试里使用sys用户)

2.源PDB不可以是关闭状态

3.如果CDBshared undoPDB必须为READ-ONLY状态

4.如果CDB不是归档模式,那么PDB必须为READ-ONLY状态

PS:如果是Oracle Database 版本为12.1,那么PDB只能为READ-ONLY状态,因在12.1undo模式,还只能选择shared undo

 

sys. ora12c>show pdbs

 

    CON_ID CON_NAME                       OPEN MODE  RESTRICTED

---------- ------------------------------ ---------- ----------

         2 PDB$SEED                       READ ONLY  NO

         3 YPDB1                          READ WRITE NO

sys. ora12c>

这里使用YPDB1做为源PDB,创建的PDBYPDB2

 

(1) 检查是否为shared undo模式

COL PROPERTY_NAME FOR A30

COL PROPERTY_VALUE FOR A30

SELECT property_name, property_value

FROM database_properties

WHERE property_name='LOCAL_UNDO_ENABLED';

 

PROPERTY_NAME                  PROPERTY_VALUE

------------------------------ ------------------------------

LOCAL_UNDO_ENABLED             TRUE

 

(2) 检查是否未archivelog模式

sys. ora12c>ARCHIVE LOG LIST

Database log mode              Archive Mode

Automatic archival             Enabled

Archive destination            /u01/app/oracle/recovery/ora12c/arch

Oldest online log sequence     21

Next log sequence to archive   23

Current log sequence           23

sys. ora12c>

 

(3) 创建验证数据

yangyuhang. ypdb1>CONN /AS SYSDBA

Connected.

sys. ora12c>conn yangyuhang/yangyuhang@ypdb1

Connected.

yangyuhang. ypdb1>SELECT COUNT(*) FROM t;

 

  COUNT(*)

----------

     22198

 

Elapsed: 00:00:00.01

yangyuhang. ypdb1>

 

(4) 执行CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE语句(这里使用sys用户连接根容器)

CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE ypdb2 FROM ypdb1

  PATH_PREFIX = '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/ora12c/ypdb2/'

  FILE_NAME_CONVERT = ('/u01/app/oracle/oradata/ora12c/ypdb1/', '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/ora12c/ypdb2/')

  SERVICE_NAME_CONVERT = ('ypdb1t','ypdb2t');

 

(5) 查看创建完成的YPDB2

sys. ora12c>show pdbs

 

    CON_ID CON_NAME                       OPEN MODE  RESTRICTED

---------- ------------------------------ ---------- ----------

         2 PDB$SEED                       READ ONLY  NO

         3 YPDB1                          READ WRITE NO

         4 YPDB2                          MOUNTED

sys. ora12c>SELECT pdb_id, pdb_name, con_uid, status, creation_scn, con_id FROM cdb_pdbs;

 

    PDB_ID PDB_NAME                CON_UID STATUS     CREATION_SCN     CON_ID

---------- -------------------- ---------- ---------- ------------ ----------

         2 PDB$SEED             1453953285 NORMAL              213          2

         3 YPDB1                2376019304 NORMAL           697945          3

         4 YPDB2                3908707960 NEW              707501          4

 

Elapsed: 00:00:00.02

sys. ora12c>

 

(6) 检查数据文件

sys. ora12c>ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE YPDB2 OPEN;

 

Pluggable database altered.

 

Elapsed: 00:00:14.02

sys. ora12c>SELECT con_id, tablespace_name, file_name FROM cdb_data_files WHERE con_id=4;

 

CON_ID TABLESP FILE_NAME

------ ------- ---------------------------------------------------------

     4 SYSTEM  /u01/app/oracle/oradata/ora12c/ypdb2/system01.dbf

     4 SYSAUX  /u01/app/oracle/oradata/ora12c/ypdb2/sysaux01.dbf

     4 DEFTBS  /u01/app/oracle/oradata/ora12c/ypdb2/deftbs01.dbf

     4 USERTBS /u01/app/oracle/oradata/ora12c/ypdb2/usertbs01.dbf

     4 UNDO_1  /u01/app/oracle/oradata/ora12c/ypdb2/system01_i1_undo.dbf

     4 YPDB1   /u01/app/oracle/oradata/ora12c/ypdb2/ypdb01.dbf

 

6 rows selected.

 

Elapsed: 00:00:00.01

sys. ora12c>

 

(7) 检查service_name

sys. ora12c>SELECT service_id, name, network_name, enabled, pdb, con_id FROM cdb_services;

 

SERVICE_ID NAME                NETWORK_NAME         ENA PDB           CON_ID

---------- ------------------- -------------------- --- --------- ----------

         1 SYS$BACKGROUND                           NO  CDB$ROOT           1

         2 SYS$USERS                                NO  CDB$ROOT           1

         3 ora12c.linux.com    ora12c.linux.com     NO  CDB$ROOT           1

         6 ypdb1.linux.com     ypdb1.linux.com      NO  YPDB1              3

         1 ypdb1t              ypdb1t               NO  YPDB1              3

         1 ypdb2t              ypdb2t               NO  YPDB2              4

         2 ypdb2.linux.com     ypdb2.linux.com      NO  YPDB2              4

 

7 rows selected.

 

Elapsed: 00:00:00.00

sys. ora12c>

PDB中的service_name已经被更改指定的service_name.

 

(8) 检查验证数据

sys. ora12c>conn yangyuhang/yangyuhang@ypdb2

Connected.

yangyuhang. ypdb2>SELECT COUNT(*) FROM t;

 

  COUNT(*)

----------

     22198

 

Elapsed: 00:00:00.11

yangyuhang. ypdb2>

 

Creating a PDB by Cloning a Remote PDB



Clone远端PDB时需要注意以下几点:

1.如果PDBClone到的CDB的字符集不是AL32UTF8,那么源与目标字符集必须兼容。

2.源端与目标端的字节顺序必须相同.

3.连接的用户在CDB中必须拥有'CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE'的权限

4.源PDB不可以是关闭状态

5.如果远端CDBshared undo,源PDB必须为READ-ONLY状态

6.如果远端CDB不是归档模式,源PDB必须为READ-ONLY状态

 

 

这里测试将win平台ORA12CW中的PDB(ORA12CWPDB)复制到linux的,目标PDBPDB2

 

(1) 查看源端与目标的字符集

col parameter for a30

col value for a30

select * from nls_database_parameters where parameter='NLS_CHARACTERSET'

or parameter='NLS_LANGUAGE' or parameter='NLS_NCHAR_CHARACTERSET';

 

(2) 查看源端与目标端字节顺序

col platform_name for a40

SELECT d.inst_id, t.platform_id, t.platform_name, t.endian_format, d.name FROM v$transportable_platform t, gv$database d

WHERE t.platform_name = d.platform_name;

 

(3) 查看源端归档模式

archive log list

 

(4) 查看源端undo模式

SELECT property_name, property_value

FROM database_properties

WHERE property_name='LOCAL_UNDO_ENABLED';

 

(5) 目标端创建dblink

CREATE DATABASE LINK ora12cw CONNECT TO system IDENTIFIED BY oracle USING 'ORA12CW';

 

(6) 运行CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE语句进行复制PDB

CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE pdb2 FROM ORA12CWPDB@ora12cw

  PATH_PREFIX = '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/ora12cl/pdb2/'

  FILE_NAME_CONVERT = ('D:\U01\APP\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORA12CW\ORA12CWPDB\', '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/ora12cl/pdb2/');

 

(7) 创建完成后目标端查看PDB2

sys. ora12cl>show pdbs

 

    CON_ID CON_NAME                       OPEN MODE  RESTRICTED

---------- ------------------------------ ---------- ----------

         2 PDB$SEED                       READ ONLY  NO

         4 PDB2                           MOUNTED

         5 PDB1                           MOUNTED

sys. ora12cl>SELECT pdb_id, pdb_name, con_uid, status, creation_scn, con_id FROM cdb_pdbs;

 

    PDB_ID PDB_NAME                CON_UID STATUS     CREATION_SCN     CON_ID

---------- -------------------- ---------- ---------- ------------ ----------

         2 PDB$SEED             3409233005 NORMAL          1408788          2

         4 PDB2                 2218727525 NEW             1824437          4

         5 PDB1                 1058019921 NORMAL          1535445          5

 

Elapsed: 00:00:00.00

sys. ora12cl>

 

(8) 目标查看数据文件

sys. ora12cl>alter pluggable database pdb2 open;

 

Pluggable database altered.

 

Elapsed: 00:00:14.02

sys. ora12cl>SELECT con_id, tablespace_name, file_name FROM cdb_data_files WHERE con_id=4;

 

CON_ID TABLESPACE_NAME FILE_NAME

------ --------------- --------------------------------------------------

     4 SYSTEM          /u01/app/oracle/oradata/ora12cl/pdb2/SYSTEM01.DBF

     4 SYSAUX          /u01/app/oracle/oradata/ora12cl/pdb2/SYSAUX01.DBF

     4 UNDOTBS1        /u01/app/oracle/oradata/ora12cl/pdb2/UNDOTBS01.DBF

     4 USERS           /u01/app/oracle/oradata/ora12cl/pdb2/USERS01.DBF

 

Elapsed: 00:00:00.00

sys. ora12cl>

 

克隆远端的PDB成功。

Creating a PDB by Cloning a Non-CDB



Clone远端的non-CDB时需要注意以下几点:

1.连接的用户必须拥有'CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE'的权限

2.non-CDB不可以是关闭状态

4.如果远端non-CDB不是归档模式,那么non-CDB必须为READ-ONLY状态

5.源端与目标端的字节序必须相同.

6.如果创建的PDB来自于non-CDB,那么non-CDB的版本必须在12.1.0.2之后。

7.如果创建的PDB来自于non-CDB,当PDB创建完成后使用SYSDBA权限用户登录PDB运行noncdb_to_pdb.sql脚本,将

 

这里将源端non-CDB数据库orcl12复制到ora12cl中,命名为PDB3

 

(1)查看non-CDB数据库版本

SELECT * FROM v$version;

 

Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition Release 12.2.0.1.0 - 64bit Production

 

(2)查看远端non-CDB数据库模式

SELECT dbid, name, open_mode, cdb FROM v$database;

 

      DBID NAME      OPEN_MODE            CDB

---------- --------- -------------------- ---

3544959965 ORCL12    READ WRITE           NO

 

(3)查看non-CDB数据库是否为归档模式

ARCHIVE LOG LIST

 

(4)查看源端与目标端字节顺序

col platform_name for a40

SELECT d.inst_id, t.platform_id, t.platform_name, t.endian_format, d.name FROM v$transportable_platform t, gv$database d

WHERE t.platform_name = d.platform_name;

 

(5)目标端创建dblink

CREATE DATABASE LINK orcl12 CONNECT TO system IDENTIFIED BY oracle USING 'ORCL12';

 

(6)执行CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE语句

CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE pdb3 FROM orcl12@orcl12

  PATH_PREFIX = '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/ora12cl/pdb3/'

  FILE_NAME_CONVERT = ('/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl12/', '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/ora12cl/pdb3/');

 

(7)PDB创建成功后查看PDB

sys. ora12cl>show pdbs

 

    CON_ID CON_NAME                       OPEN MODE  RESTRICTED

---------- ------------------------------ ---------- ----------

         2 PDB$SEED                       READ ONLY  NO

         3 PDB3                           MOUNTED

         4 PDB2                           READ WRITE NO

         5 PDB1                           MOUNTED

sys. ora12cl>SELECT pdb_id, pdb_name, con_uid, status, creation_scn, con_id FROM cdb_pdbs;

 

    PDB_ID PDB_NAME           CON_UID STATUS     CREATION_SCN     CON_ID

---------- --------------- ---------- ---------- ------------ ----------

         3 PDB3            3564415452 NEW             3014651          3

         2 PDB$SEED        3409233005 NORMAL          1408788          2

         4 PDB2            2218727525 NORMAL          1824437          4

         5 PDB1            1058019921 NORMAL          1535445          5

 

Elapsed: 00:00:00.00

 

(8)运行noncdb_to_pdb.sql脚本(必须使用拥有SYSDBA权限的用户在PDB中执行)

$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/noncdb_to_pdb.sql

 

(9)查看数据文件

sys. ora12cl>alter pluggable database pdb3 open;

 

Pluggable database altered.

 

Elapsed: 00:00:52.88

sys. ora12cl>SELECT con_id, tablespace_name, file_name FROM cdb_data_files WHERE con_id=3;

 

    CON_ID TABLESPACE_NAME FILE_NAME

---------- --------------- --------------------------------------------------

         3 SYSTEM          /u01/app/oracle/oradata/ora12cl/pdb3/system01.dbf

         3 SYSAUX          /u01/app/oracle/oradata/ora12cl/pdb3/sysaux01.dbf

         3 UNDOTBS1        /u01/app/oracle/oradata/ora12cl/pdb3/undotbs01.dbf

         3 USERS           /u01/app/oracle/oradata/ora12cl/pdb3/users01.dbf

 

Elapsed: 00:00:00.00

sys. ora12cl>

 

Cloning a PDB Without Cloning Its Data

在克隆已有的PDB或者non CDB时,我们也可以将克隆语句中加入NO DATA子句,在使用NO DATA子句时,仅仅会克隆源PDB中的模型定义,并不会克隆PDB中的数据。(Oracle数据库内自动创建的schemas下的对象会被成功克隆,而用户创建的schemas下的对象仅仅会克隆对象的定义结构)。

 

1.  测试克隆本地PDB时使用no data子句

这里将WOQUPDB克隆为PDBTEST.

(1)源PDB:

sys. woqu>show pdbs

 

    CON_ID CON_NAME                       OPEN MODE  RESTRICTED

---------- ------------------------------ ---------- ----------

         2 PDB$SEED                       READ ONLY  NO

         3 WOQUPDB                        READ WRITE NO

sys. woqu>COL PROPERTY_NAME FOR A30

sys. woqu>COL PROPERTY_VALUE FOR A30

sys. woqu>

 

(2)检查UNDO模式及归档模式

sys. woqu>SELECT property_name, property_value

  2  FROM database_properties

  3  WHERE property_name='LOCAL_UNDO_ENABLED';

 

 

PROPERTY_NAME                  PROPERTY_VALUE

------------------------------ ------------------------------

LOCAL_UNDO_ENABLED             TRUE

 

Elapsed: 00:00:00.04

sys. woqu>sys. woqu>archive log list

Database log mode              Archive Mode

Automatic archival             Enabled

Archive destination            USE_DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST

Oldest online log sequence     7

Next log sequence to archive   9

Current log sequence           9

sys. woqu>

 

 

(3)创建测试数据表t,注意这里的t表位于sys用户下:

05:51:10 sys. woqupdb>create table t as select * from dba_objects where rownum<=10;

 

Table created.

 

Elapsed: 00:00:00.10

05:52:41 sys. woqupdb>select count(*) from t;

 

  COUNT(*)

----------

        10

 

Elapsed: 00:00:00.01

05:52:50 sys. woqupdb>

t中共有10条数据。

 

(4)创建测试数据表t_tab,注意这里的t表位于yangyuhang用户下:

05:51:46 yangyuhang. woqupdb>create table t_tab as select * from dba_objects where rownum<=999;

 

Table created.

 

Elapsed: 00:00:01.84

05:52:15 yangyuhang. woqupdb>select count(*) from t_tab;

 

  COUNT(*)

----------

       999

 

Elapsed: 00:00:00.01

05:52:19 yangyuhang. woqupdb>

 

(5)使用create pluggable database + NO DATA子句创建pdb:pdbtest:

sys. woqu>CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE pdbtest FROM woqupdb NO DATA

  2  PATH_PREFIX = '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/woqu/pdbtest'

  3  FILE_NAME_CONVERT = ('/u01/app/oracle/oradata/woqu/woqupdb', '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/woqu/pdbtest');

 

Pluggable database created.

 

Elapsed: 00:00:09.35

sys. woqu>

 

(6)检查克隆完成的pdbtest:

sys. woqu>show pdbs

 

    CON_ID CON_NAME    OPEN MODE  RESTRICTED

---------- ----------- ---------- ----------

         2 PDB$SEED    READ ONLY  NO

         3 WOQUPDB     READ WRITE NO

         5 PDBTEST     MOUNTED

sys. woqu>SELECT pdb_id, pdb_name, con_uid, status, creation_scn, con_id FROM cdb_pdbs;

 

    PDB_ID PDB_NAME       CON_UID STATUS     CREATION_SCN     CON_ID

---------- ----------- ---------- ---------- ------------ ----------

         3 WOQUPDB     1167267009 NORMAL          1443334          3

         2 PDB$SEED     399989944 NORMAL          1408751          2

         5 PDBTEST     3356573055 NEW             1956581          5

 

Elapsed: 00:00:00.05

sys. woqu>alter pluggable database pdbtest open;

 

Pluggable database altered.

 

Elapsed: 00:00:07.09

sys. woqu>show pdbs

 

    CON_ID CON_NAME    OPEN MODE  RESTRICTED

---------- ----------- ---------- ----------

         2 PDB$SEED    READ ONLY  NO

         3 WOQUPDB     READ WRITE NO

         5 PDBTEST     READ WRITE NO

sys. woqu>SELECT pdb_id, pdb_name, con_uid, status, creation_scn, con_id FROM cdb_pdbs;

 

    PDB_ID PDB_NAME     CON_UID STATUS CREATION_SCN     CON_ID

---------- --------- ---------- ------ ------------ ----------

         3 WOQUPDB   1167267009 NORMAL      1443334          3

         2 PDB$SEED   399989944 NORMAL      1408751          2

         5 PDBTEST   3356573055 NORMAL      1956581          5

 

Elapsed: 00:00:00.02

sys. woqu>

 

 

(7)将从测试数据

sys. woqu>alter session set container=pdbtest;

 

Session altered.

 

Elapsed: 00:00:00.07

sys. woqu>show user con_id

USER is "SYS"

 

CON_ID

------------------------------

5

sys. woqu>select count(*) from t;

 

  COUNT(*)

----------

        10

 

Elapsed: 00:00:00.00

sys. woqu>select count(*) from yangyuhang.t_tab;

 

  COUNT(*)

----------

         0

 

Elapsed: 00:00:00.02

sys. woqu>

 

通过测试可以看到sys下的对象中的数据依然克隆成功,而自建用户下的对象中数据并没有跟着一个克隆。

 

 

2.测试克隆远端PDB时使用no data子句

  这里将远端PDBPDBTEST克隆到本地,命名为ORA12CPDB2

 

(1)创建DBLINK

sys. ora12c>CREATE DATABASE LINK woqu CONNECT TO system IDENTIFIED BY oracle USING 'WOQU';

 

Database link created.

 

Elapsed: 00:00:00.15

sys. ora12c>

 

(2)克隆PDBTEST

sys. ora12c>CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE ORA12CPDB2 FROM PDBTEST@WOQU NO DATA

  2    PATH_PREFIX = '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/ora12c/ora12cpdb2'

  3    FILE_NAME_CONVERT = ('/u01/app/oracle/oradata/woqu/pdbtest', '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/ora12c/ora12cpdb2');

 

Pluggable database created.

 

Elapsed: 00:00:10.44

sys. ora12c>

 

(3)检查克隆完成后的ORA12CPDB2

sys. ora12c>show pdbs

 

    CON_ID CON_NAME       OPEN MODE  RESTRICTED

---------- -------------- ---------- ----------

         2 PDB$SEED       READ ONLY  NO

         3 ORA12CPDB      READ WRITE NO

         5 ORA12CPDB2     MOUNTED

sys. ora12c>SELECT pdb_id, pdb_name, con_uid, status, creation_scn, con_id FROM cdb_pdbs;

 

    PDB_ID PDB_NAME         CON_UID STATUS     CREATION_SCN     CON_ID

---------- ------------- ---------- ---------- ------------ ----------

         3 ORA12CPDB     1788418398 NORMAL          1442734          3

         2 PDB$SEED      2375660446 NORMAL          1408749          2

         5 ORA12CPDB2    2003741801 NEW             1959473          5

 

Elapsed: 00:00:00.01

sys. ora12c>

 

(4)验证数据

sys. ora12c>alter pluggable database ora12cpdb2 open;

 

Pluggable database altered.

 

Elapsed: 00:00:05.24

sys. ora12c>alter session set container=ora12cpdb2;

 

Session altered.

 

Elapsed: 00:00:00.04

sys. ora12c>select count(*) from t;

 

  COUNT(*)

----------

        10

 

Elapsed: 00:00:00.01

sys. ora12c>select count(*) from yangyuhang.t_tab;

 

  COUNT(*)

----------

         0

 

Elapsed: 00:00:00.00

sys. ora12c>

 

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